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Research and development

EMEC is devoted to continuous improvement of its products and fluid systems to meet the fast evolving and ever changing drilling & completion challenges.  As clients explore unconventional resources and further develop mature fields, EMEC works in close collaboration to develop technologies that help them reach new prospects.

EMEC is in process to have a dedicated and fully independent research and development laboratory in Alexandria that is mandated with sustaining existing products, the development of new products and innovation of new fluids systems.  Through alliances with some of the leading global manufacturers, research labs and cooperation with technical universities, EMEC will be able to bring novel and cost effective products and systems to the industry.

EMEC TOOLS

EMEC Tools is a user-friendly proprietary software system that can be used both in the office and at the rig site. The software is equipped with a handy unit conversion utility that has oil field, SI and customized unit settings, enabling a wide range of complex and commonly used engineering calculations to be performed for given inputs.

Applications:

Fluid Engineering & Function

Mud Weight Up
Cut Mud Weight
Solids Analysis (Water-Based & Oil-Based Fluids)
Blending two or more fluids
Oil Water Ratio calculations
Adjust Oil Water Ratio & Salinity
Add a known volume to oil-based mud
Adjust Water Phase Salinity
Volume, Height & Weight of Slug

Fluid Hydraulics

Flow Rate
Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD)
Slip Velocity

Fluid Formulation

Oil-Based Fluid formulation
Water-Based Fluid formulation

Formulas & Calculations

Max ROP
Break Circulation Pressure
Solids Control Equipment Evaluation

Pressure Calculations

Fracture Gradient
Kill Mud Weight
Equivalent Mud Weight
Leak-Off Test
Maximum Allowable SICP
Surge & Swab

Stuck Pipe & Spotting Fluids Calculations

Stuck Pipe Calculations
Calculations Required for Spotting Fluids

Volume Calculations

Pipe Volume
Wellbore Volume
Rectangular Tank Volumes
Cylindrical Tank Volumes (Horizontal, Vertical and Tapered)
Pump Output

WELL DATA PROGNOSIS

Program Features

EMEC Well Data Prognosis is a proprietary Oracle data base system for preparing drilling fluids programs, based on inputs and reference data. The program allows precise and accurate drilling fluids formulations for both water and oil based fluids. The program shares its database references and units system with the EWD Processor. This platform has the facility to export the drilling fluids program file executed in the office to the field engineer on a read only basis, where all the well information can be set as guidelines for the well site engineers. This intelligent system offers a warning whenever field data is out of the range specified in the mud program.

Applications:

EMEC’s program facilitates the design of any well section and includes: original hole intervals and unlimited number of sidetracks; lateral or multilateral sections; and different drilling fluid types. Scenarios can be applied for a single interval where the client can compare the cost of different fluid scenarios. This includes their technical limit, practical limit and the worst case scenario.

Via a user-friendly interface, EMEC’s program allows the design of each interval in relation to the following:

  • Total hole volume estimate for each interval based on given data, including well geometry, hole washouts and dilution factors.
  • Mixing criteria selection – The user can either calculate according to final barrel density formulations, the density of the base fluids or the products included in the mud formulation.
  • The impact of fluid maintenance on volume and cost/bbl
  • Fluid Management – mud received or transferred and its impact on total mud cost
  • A full analysis of data for each interval (in a tabulated display), including product name, base fluids & products concentration and product usage quantity; any additional & maintenance cost; final interval cost – cost/unit volume and cost/unit length.
  • The mud specs for each interval as minimum and maximum limits that are set as guidelines for the drilling fluids engineer at the well site.
  • Anticipated formation name, lithology, rock type, anticipated hole problems, hole interval top and bottom, casing design are all graphically represented in one digital image for a quick preview.

Once the drilling fluid program receives final approval, the well file is swiftly exported in a digital format to the well site drilling fluids engineer on a read-only basis, where it can be uploaded to the EMEC well data processer platform. As a result, all the well information can be displayed and the minimum and maximum mud specifications are set as guidelines with a warning system should any actual mud parameters deviate from the drilling fluids program.
Reports & Graphics

  • District Data Report
  • Anticipated Well Date Report
  • Drilling Fluids Summary Report
  • Estimated Total Material Consumption and Cost
  • Interval Volume and Cost Analysis
  • Mud Parameters Log
  • Proposed Days Vs (Cost, Depth, etc)
WELL DATA PROCESSOR

Program Features

The EMEC Well Data Processor is a proprietary Oracle database reporting system for well site drilling fluids engineers. It handles all the requirements for daily operations related to drilling fluids.  The program includes a customized measuring unit system including: standard US API, metric, and user-defined unit systems, in addition to database references. All data is presented in user-friendly drop-down menus, which can be easily edited.

Integrated Intelligent System:

The program has an integrated intelligent system that will check data entry in real-time. The user can also initiate the intelligent system engine manually to check the data entered.

Applications

Based on data inputs, the program will design & calculate the following:

  • Pump output
  • Design well geometry and casing scheme
  • Calculate rheological properties.
  • Perform bit and mud hydraulics calculations based on the hydraulics model selected.
  • ECD management and fluids regime analysis.
  • Solids analysis calculations for oil-based and water-based fluids, as well as formate fluids.
  • Chemical volume and concentration calculations.
  • Hole volume and annular velocity calculations.
  • Mud products cost analysis and daily inventory.
  • Well Trajectory and deviation analysis.
  • Full Geological parameters for formations being drilled.

Based on the unit system selected, results are computed automatically as data is entered.

Reports, Graphics and Drilling Fluids Recap

Data Output: Reports

  • District Data Report
  • Well Data Synopsis Report
  • Daily Drilling Fluid Report
  • Daily Hydraulics Report
  • Daily Chemical Inventory & Additional Cost Report
  • Daily Operations Log
  • Well History Report
  • Daily Product Concentration Report
  • Current Concentration Report
  • Cost Summary Report
  • Inventory Summary Report
  • Bit Record Report
  • Deviation Summary Report
  • Lithology and Formation Tops Report
  • Custom Volumer and Time Distribution Report
  • Well Intervals Summary Report (incl. Product Concentrations)
  • Well Intervals Summary Report (incl. Product Usage and Cost)
Data Output: Graphs
  • Volume Analysis (Report Types 1 & 2)
  • Interval Cost Chart
  • Total Well Cost Chart
  • Time Distribution Chart
  • Mud Weight Vs Depth
  • Rheology Vs Depth
  • Days Vs Depth
  • Depth Vs Cost
  • Products Concentration Vs Depth
  • Hydraulic Graphs

At the end of each well, the drilling fluid engineer will only export the well file to the recap launcher module where the well final recap is processed automatically and can be sent to the client in any digital or hard copy format required by the client.

BRIDGING PARTICLES OPTIMIZATION TOOL

The Bridging Particles Optimization Tool (BPOT) is proprietary software that calculates the optimum blending proportion of two or more bridging agents. The ideal packing bridging technique allows software calculations to optimize particle size distribution for any given formation.

Optimizing the bridging solids provides several advantages for the drill-in and other drilling fluid systems:

  • Rheological properties such as plastic viscosity, gel strength and yield point can be easily controlled.
  • Controlling and lowering the Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD) helps prevent lost circulation in depleted and fractured reservoirs.
  • Low solids systems provide higher quality thin mud cakes that are beneficial for slim wellbore drilling.
  • Low fluid loss minimizes fluid invasion in reservoir formations, which therefore minimizes the possibility of formation damage.

Features & Applications

EMEC’s BPOT database provides a wide range of particle size distribution (PSD) datasets. This allows the program to provide the best optimum blend of bridging particles, which can tightly seal a reservoir formation.

The program inputs use pore sizing from thin section analysis or actual core analysis, pore size radii analysis and permeability information. The square root of the permeability in mD can be used as a rough guide to the median or average pore size of any given formation.

The first step in the process of forming a seal is to define the worst-case scenario based on the largest dominant pore size or fracture width. Once this is established, the ideal packing theory (known as the D½ rule), is applied.

Via a simulation process, the program selects the optimum blend from the available material set, where the particle-size-distribution line of the bridging material should closly match the slope of the optimum line for this formation. With known total bridging material concentration, the program will generate an output of the bridging material blend with percentage and concentration for each bridging product.

EMEC STRESS CAGE PLANNING TOOL

Drilling practice sometimes dictates an increase in mud weight beyond the fracture gradient margin of a particular interval, which could induce mud losses. Stress Cage method is considered as a preventive technique to enhance the fracture gradient of weak intervals in the wellbore.

The fundamental principle of Stress Cage Theory is to enhance the hoop stress of the target formation near the wellbore by inducing fractures and then prop them open with extra high crushing resistance bridging materials.

The EMEC Stress Cage Planning Tool (ESCPT) is an in-house developed software package that is designed to simulate the wellbore strengthening process. The software gives the user the capability to design the appropriate additives blend to prop and seal the induced fractures.

The induced fracture size can be presented by a log-normal distribution. The cumulative curve for this distribution is considered to be the target curve. The appropriate blend of additives to be added to the drilling fluid should have a cumulative distribution curve that best fits the fracture target curve.

The ESCPT uses the Least Square Method to minimize the deviation between both curves. Numerical techniques are applied to get the percentages of the individual additives within the blend.

Features & Applications

The ESCPT database provides a broad range of particle size distribution datasets, enabling the program to find the optimum blend. However the software also provides flexible tools so the user can fix additives with predetermined percentages within the blend with a best-fit solution scenario calculated by the program.

EMEC’s software provides flexibility in calculating the fracture width by following minimum, most likely and maximum scenarios for critical input variables. The software allows the user to solve and store multiple solution sets according to the user’s predetermined strategy selections.

The solutions provided by the software are presented both analytically and graphically. The user can generate technical reports for one or all solution sets.

HOLE CLEANING PROCESSOR

The efficient transport of drilled cuttings from the bit to surface is always a major issue when drilling inclined or horizontal wells. The mathematical model for this program enables the prediction of cuttings transport in highly deviated to horizontal wells taking account of the operating parameters, wellbore geometry, fluid properties and cuttings characteristics.

The theory used for developing the software is based on the analysis of force balance and cuttings bed motion. The program utilizes a three-layer model for cuttings transport comprising three components: a stationary bed of particles of uniform concentration; a moving bed layer in which particle concentration is varied; and a heterogeneous suspension layer on top. The equations for cuttings concentrations for different wellbore sections have been used to calculate cuttings bed formation and to determine whether the bed remains stationary or slides up the hole. The analysis also determines the position of the cuttings bed formed and the height of the cuttings bed layer.

Applications

The software modeling is valid for an eccentric or concentric annulus for Herschel Bulkley fluids, based on the following inputs:

(1)  Annular eccentricity

(2) Rate of Penetration (cutting concentrations)

(3) Pipe Rotation Speed (RPM)

(4) Drilling fluid properties ( Rheological Properties and drilling fluid density )

(5) Wellbore configuration

(6) Physical characteristics of cuttings (size, Density)

The software allows the user to:

1. Determine whether a cuttings bed is formed or not; compute the height of the cuttings bed layer formed;     and show the position of the cuttings bed in given operating conditions.

2.  Simulate the effects of various drilling parameters on deviated wells.

3.  Predict hole cleaning efficiency by changing the drilling parameters.

EMEC WELL DATA SIMULATOR

The EMEC Well Data Simulator (EWDS) is a proprietary suite to deliver design, evaluation and simulation of significant drilling challenges.

EWDS is a set of integrated modules that concentrates on drilling hydraulics and modeling wellbore pressures and temperatures during all phases of thedrilling operation in extended-reach, highly deviated, horizontal and high temperature and high pressure (HTHP) wells. The simulator uses state of the art algorithms and provides the user with a wide range of modeling options.

The simulator includes a well trajectory and planning model for single or multiple well directional profiles, whether computed or imported from other directional survey service providers. The well trajectories are displayed in 3-D profile.

EWDS calculates and evaluates down-hole temperatures during drilling, circulating and shut-in operations for land and deep-water wells. A finite difference mathematical model has been developed to predict well bore and formation transient temperature behavior during drilling, fluid circulation and shut-in operations. This includes wells with multiple temperature gradients and well bore deviations, based on the fluids physical characteristics. The PVT model accurately calculates ECD and ESD according to formation and wellbore temperature profiles.

EWDS can be used to analyze and optimize the hydraulics program for complex wells where there is a tight tolerance between ECD and fracture pressure, or pore pressure and fracture pressure. It takes into account the down-hole effects on rheological properties and mud density, in addition to the effects of RPM, tool-joints, cuttings loading, and pipe eccentricity on pressure loss calculations, enabling accurate predictions of ECDs.

The Dynamic hole-cleaning module supported with a 3-D virtual reality window and graphical representation enables the display of static and moving cuttings bed heights, cuttings concentration, carrying capacity index and transport ratio, taking into account the rate of penetration, RPM, down-hole density profile and rheological properties, as well as absolute hole eccentricity.

The dynamic Surge & Swab module determines optimum running speeds while tripping pipe and running casing. The model calculates the pressure required to break mud gels, taking into account the down-hole density and rheological properties either statically or after a dynamic process .

The Torque & Drag module is used to validate well designs and prevent lost rig time by eliminating drilling string failure. The model plays an important role in many well operations by revealing when well friction may become a limiting factor in drilling. The model has been developed to improve well planning design through reduced torque and drag, and for more realistic drill string design and surface equipment selection. The model uses a wide range of well parameters integrated with well plan surveys and/or actual data to enable prediction of tension and compression loading and torque limits on the drill string during well operations. It also predicts whether the string will reach planned well TD, or if the forces resulting from friction will exceed allowable limits. The model also predicts any buckling of the string along the way.

The Displacement module offers a tool to model the displacement process and optimize the input parameters according to the simulated results to safe rig time. The Module optimizes the number of pump stages according to the calculated maximum flow rate to prevent wellbore instability.

The results of the module are represented numerically and graphically showing bit hydraulics, down hole pressure and temperature, and real time pressure loss and equivalent densities.

CFD VISUALIZATION SYSTEM

Due to the hydraulic nature of the drilling process, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used as a numerical technique in solving mathematical models. CFD provides an excellent means for solving and visualizing fluid dynamic problems.

EMEC CFD Visualization is a proprietary system, which computes a wide variety of parameters as well as the complex geometry of the problem. These are the principle challenges of any modeling system. As Drilling is a highly sophisticated physical process the physical model is represented as a mathematical model, which can then be solved using numerical methods

The EMEC CFD Visualization system is based on CFD techniques to visually present behavior of the mud inside the drill string and the wellbore annulus. It builds a complete and accurate mesh of the geometry required to solve for any point on this mesh. Managing the density of this mesh allows the user to control the accuracy of the results as well as the calculation time required.

EMEC CFD Visualization Tools make it easy to calculate and provide an exact mud velocity profile for the wellbore cross section instead of dealing with one average velocity for the whole cross section.  This enhances considerably the ability to study cuttings transportation more accurately.  The velocity, pressure, viscosity and flow lines of the mud inside the wellbore are examples of parameters that can be displayed using EMEC CFD visualization tools.