OIL FIELD CHEMICALS
ECC manufactures and supplies a comprehensive range of oil field production chemicals and industrial chemicals. ECC has an extensive range of applications, including crude oil water separation, water injection treatment, enhancing oil well productivity as well as crude oil pumping and flowing. ECC Oil Field Chemicals can also be used to protect down hole completions, pipelines and process facilities against corrosion and scale formation.
Demulsifiers are speciality chemicals designed for breaking emulsions. They are used for separating water from oil, for example. Demulsifiers are commonly used in the processing of crude oil, where water and salt are removed from the crude oil before refining, to prevent corrosion issues.
Demulsifiers speed up water droplet coalescence by:
- Decreasing and cancelling out the electrostatic forces of repulsion between water droplets
- Bringing well-dispersed water droplets closer together through flocculation
- Decreasing surface tension between the water droplets, speeding up coalescence and formation of bigger droplets thus increasing the speed of separation
An emulsion is a stable dispersion of one liquid in a second immiscible liquid, such as milk (fat dispersed in water).
Crude oil contains natural surfactants which, when mixed with water, can emulsify the water into the oil. The more common type of emulsion is water dispersed in oil, but “reverse” emulsion (oil in water) can also occur. Emulsions raise the bottom sediment and water (BS&W) of oil and are often very viscous.
Emulsification is the process of dispersing one liquid in a second immiscible liquid; the largest groups of emulsifying agents are soaps, detergents, and other surface-active compounds (Surfactants).
In an emulsion, the combined sedimentation and coalescence of emulsified drops of the dispersed phase so that they will settle out of the carrier liquid; this can be accomplished mechanically (in settlers, cyclones, or centrifuges) with or without the aid of chemical additives to increase the surface tension of the droplets. This is known as emulsion breaking.
This diagram shows an emulsion resolution:
Pour point depressants are designed to control wax crystal formation in paraffin and crude oil and reduce the temperature at which they are able to flow (their pour point).
ECC pour point depressants prevent wax deposition in pipes, which can significantly reduce pressure levels and adversely affect production. They are particularly useful for oils with a high wax content or pour point, and in low temperature environments.
Crude oil or condensate can contain heavy hydrocarbon molecules, which form a solid ‘wax’ phase under certain operating conditions. Wax becomes less soluble at lower temperatures. In a sub sea pipeline, for example, crude oil will gradually cool and at wax appearance temperature (WAT) or cloud point, the wax will become less soluble, increasing the solid phase content of the oil and causing wax deposition. If wax builds up on the pipe wall, the internal pipe diameter will decrease, increasing frictional pressure, restricting flow and effectively reducing pipeline capacity.
ECC PPDs allow you to maximize capacity and therefore productivity. They are comprised of surfactant-type chemical and aromatic solvent, which aids the solubility of paraffin waxes.
PPDs can be applied at low temperatures, even at temperatures below WAT. They are commonly applied in high doses during periodic slugs, or continuously at low concentrations.
Wax is label used to encompass a range of many difficult components. Generally petroleum waxes are high molecular weight paraffinic compounds with chain lengths in the range of C10 to C70+. Waxes of chain length > C40 are termed microcrystalline wax. Microcrystalline wax deposits are extremely tenacious and very difficult to remove by normal methods (hot-oil flushing, solvent washing, etc), which is why Pour Point Depressants are so important.
Wax deposition problems can also be treated with wax dispersants and wax dissolvers.
Corrosion inhibitors will protect your production plant and associated flow lines and pipelines from corrosive environments, such as produced water and seawater.
Corrosion can be defined as degradation of material as a result of a chemical reaction with its environment.
There are a number of contributing factors to corrosion, and it is important to identify the cause before an effective solution can be applied.
Corrosion resistant alloys have developed considerably over the past few decades, yet carbon steel still constitutes an estimated 99% of material used in the oil industry. Whilst a cost effective option, being 3-5 times cheaper than stainless steel, its corrosion resistance in aggressive environments is poor. A corrosion inhibitor, is the best way for cost savings to be realised.
Successful and economic inhibitor selection depends on careful and reliable laboratory testing prior to field trials. We carefully test all our corrosion inhibitors using cutting edge equipment.
There are a number of different corrosion attack forms:
ECC biocides or bactericides control a wide range of bacteria in both aerobic and anaerobic environments (including sulphate reducers). They can be used in fresh water, sea water and low brines, and can help you to control the activity of bacteria in your systems.
ECC provide a wide range of biocide chemicals, but the main ones used for the treatment of bacteria in oil fields are:
Quat and amines.
Quaternary ammonium compound acts as an active surface detergent that increases the penetration of the cell membrane formed from water and minerals salt.
Aldehyde groups act as bactericides which kill bacteria growth by changing the DNA structure and stopping the action of bacteria. Aldehyde are not very good at penetrating bio-films, and are often blended with other chemicals such as quaternary ammonium compound to improve their penetration efficiency
Tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate (THPS)
THPS is a new class of anti-microbial agent which offers superior anti-microbial activity, controlling the growth of bacteria, algae and fungi, with minimum effects on the environment. THPS’s benefits include low toxicity, low dosage and rapid breakdown in the environment.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless, flammable and extremely hazardous gas, which occurs naturally in the oil and gas industry. Many chemicals readily react with H2S including caustic, peroxides, formaldehyde, nitrites and many types of amines.
Hydrogen sulfide scavengers convert the H2S or mercaptans (group of sulfur-containing organic chemical substances) into other sulfur compounds, improving environmental, health and safety compliance, as well as increasing production efficicency and improving operational reliability.
There are three types of Hydrogen sulfide scavengers: water-soluble, oil-soluble and metal-based:
Water-soluble scavengers are among the most common scavengers and are often the product of choice for applications at temperatures below 200°F (93°C). Economical costs and fast reaction rates make them attractive options. Moreover, due to their water solubility, they add a minimum amount of nitrogen to the fuel. These are the preferred additives for use in LPG, resides and crude oils.
Oil-soluble scavengers are used in high-temperature applications or when water tolerance of the hydrocarbon is an issue. These products are typically amine based and perform as effectively as water-soluble additives. These products react with H2S irreversibly to form a thermally stable, oil soluble alkyl sulfide. They can be applied at a wide range of temperatures, from ambient up to 350°F (177°C), and are often the product of choice for viscous heavy oils and resids.
Metal-based scavengers answer the specific needs of very high temperature and high-H2S concentration applications. These additives can be used at temperatures in excess of 350°F (177°C) to form thermally stable products and are able to provide H2S reduction levels that other H2Sscavengers cannot achieve.
Viscosity modifiers reduce the change in viscosity of a lubricant when it is subjected to changes in temperature.
At high temperatures the lubricant polymer chains uncoil, occupying more volume, thickening and becoming less viscous. At low temperatures, polymer chains coil more, thicken less and become increasingly viscous.
Viscosity modifiers balance this change, so as lubricants cool and heat their viscosity level is maintained.
Paraffin dispersant is made up of a unique blend of organic surface-active compounds combined with multiple aromatic solvents, designed to eliminate depositions of Paraffin. It is particularly effective in removing accumulated paraffin deposits across the vast spectrum of waxes.
Paraffin dispersant retains paraffin in the oil phase, and is typically utilized in any surface equipment where accumulation of paraffin occurs, as well as in flow lines and down hole. It can also be used for tank bottom cleanup.
ECC Asphaltene dispersant reduces the precipitation of Asphaltenes from crude oil. It preserves asset integrity and reliability of subsea wells and flow lines; and maximizes production potential by preventing deposition/restriction in flow lines and tubular. It is also used on surface treating operations.
Asphaltene dispersant absorbs destabilized colloidal Asphaltene, which is solid and disperses it in to oil state. This prevents formation of organic deposits on pipe surfaces or safety equipment, optimizing performance, maintaining throughput and minimizing downtime.
Asphaltene inhibitors are actually dispersants. That is, they don’t prevent Asphaltene flocculation, but rather disperse the precipitated Asphaltene to prevent deposition or agglomeration. For optimal performance, Asphaltene inhibitors have to be injected upstream of the Asphaltene flocculation location.
Anti-foaming agents and defoamers are chemical additives that reduce and hinder the formation of foam in industrial process liquids.
Foam is most commonly formed when oil is depressurized and dissolved gases are released from the solution. Foam can also be created by contaminants such as drilling mud, wax, sand and asphaltene. Foam may result in the incomplete separation of liquid and gas, meaning oil droplets can remain and foul processing equipment.
ECC antifoams minimize loss of pump capacity and efficiency and prevent unplanned shutdowns, improving profitability and effectiveness of your operations.
Scale deposition is a huge source of production decline in the global oil industry. Scale Dissolvers are the most effective method of maintaining productivity.
ECC Scale Dissolver removes oilfield scales effectively without severely corroding tubular and downhole completion equipment. The dissolvers also ensure the prevention or delay of scale formation. ECC’s scale-removal technique is rapid and effective with a high reaction rate to ensure no damage is incurred.
ECC Oil Spill Dispersants work effectively against your oil spillages to minimize the impact on the environment. The dispersants are a concentrated blend of anionic surfactants in an aqueous solution. Oil Spill Dispersants are capable of dissipating an oil spillage from the marine environment. They turn oil into small droplets which become easier for marine microorganisms to digest.
The dispersants contain both surface-active agents (surfactants) and solvent systems. Each surfactant molecule has a water-soluble ‘head’ group and an oil-soluble ‘tail’. Once these molecules have contact with an oil slick on the water they diffuse through the oil to the oil/water interface under the slick. Surfactants lower the oil/water interfacial tension; thus lowering the energy needed to mix oil into water. In turn this makes it easier for the oil to disperse into the water phase as discrete droplets. ECC Oil Spill Dispersants efficiently reduce the effects of oil spillages and contamination on shores.
ECC Oxygen Scavengers enhance the prevention of oxygen-induced corrosion when they react with dissolved oxygen. For example, sulfite (SO3-2) and bisulfite (HSO3–) ions combine with oxygen to form sulfate (SO4-2).
HSO3– + O2 → SO4— + H2SO4
ECC Oxygen Scavengers react with oxygen present in source water, removing the risk to its integrity and potential to react with other ions in the system. So you can protect your pipelines while keeping oil and gas production running at the highest quality.
Oxygen corrosion, in oilfield metallurgy, is often caused by the addition of fluids that have been exposed to air from the surface. Oxygen can be introduced in significant quantities when large volumes of fluid are injected downhole. For example, in fracturing operations, saltwater disposal wells, formation squeezes or water flood operations. Symptoms that can occur in oxygen downhole are dark produced water, reddish or brown solids in produced water, excessive turbidity of produced water or flaky black or reddish deposits on metal surfaces. Oxygen Scavengers react rapidly and focus on improving oxygen associated corrosion, so these symptoms do not transpire.
Polyelectrolytes are polymers carrying either positively or negatively charged ionizable groups. These groups can separate in polar solvents such as water. Polymers that ionize in solutions are called polyelectrolytes, both dissociate in water. Polymers in solutions, and at charged surfaces, depend on the fraction of dissociated iconic groups, solvent quality for polymer backbone, solution dielectric constant, salt concentration, and polymer-substrate interactions.
Cleaners are made up from a concentrated blend of anionic surfactants in aromatic solvents. This is to guarantee the capable removal of heavy grease and soils from drilling rigs, engines and other types of machinery and lease equipment. ECC cleaners can do this rapidly as well as successfully. Cleaning is an important part of the safety regime to protect employees and equipment, and our chemicals are designed to be environmentally-friendly.
Polyelectrolyte / Deoiler is an organic cationic polymer used to remove oil and suspended solids from water. ECC water clarifiers dramatically reduce oil losses, whilst improving the quality of the water. They also contribute to control corrosion in pipes. ECC water clarifiers are suitable for use in air flotation separation, gravity settling and direct filtration.